•      Different crops are grown in different seasons because crops require different conditions to grow.

•      Farmers grow different crops in different seasons to get a better productivity.

•      There are two types of crops:

        o  Kharif crops

        o  Rabi crops


Kharif Crops:

•      The term Kharif means “autumn “in Arabic.

•      These crops are sown in the rainy season and harvested in autumn.

•      Crops grown from June to October are known as kharif crops.

•      Kharif crops require abundant rainfall.


For example:

A.        Maize:

  1. Maize is a kharif crop.
  2. It is also called as ‘sweet corn’.


B.        Rice:


  1. It grows best in alluvial soil.
  2. It is the most important food grain of India.


C.        Cotton:

  1. Cotton plant requires abundant water to grow.
  2. It grows best in black soil.
  3. The largest producer of cotton is Gujarat.


D.        Turmeric:

  1. It grows best in loam soil.
  2. The largest producers of turmeric in India are Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


E.        Sugarcane:

  1. It also needs abundant water and loam soil to grow.
  2. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India.


F.         Soyabean:

  1. It is mainly cultivated in Madhya Pradesh.
  2. Soyabean seeds are used for its oil.


Rabi Crops:

•      The term Rabi means “spring” in Arabic.

•      Rabi crops are sown in autumn and harvested in the winter season.

•      Crops grown from November to April are called Rabi crops.

•      Rabi crops require less amount of water to grow.


For example:

A.        Legumes

  1. Legumes are the plants that bear seeds in their pods.
  2. Legumes are very rich in protein.


B.        Wheat

  1. Wheat is the largest cereal grain produced in India.
  2. It grows best in black soil.
  3. Punjab is the largest producer of wheat in India.


C.        Barley


  1. It is the major cereal grain.
  2. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of barley in India.


D.        Linseed


  1. In India, linseed is grown mainly for seeds.
  2. It is the dried ripe seed of flax plant.
  3. Linseed oil is also called flaxseed oil.


E.        Mustard


  1. It grows best in sandy and loamy soil.
  2. Rajasthan is the largest producer of mustard in India.


F.         Pulses

  1. These are the leguminous crop.
  2. They are used for food and animal feed.
  3. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of pulses in India.



  1. Rice and cotton crops are grown from the month of June to October. They are also called as monsoon crops. What is the name given to these crops?

Ans: harif crops


  1. What makes legume plants desirable crops in agriculture?

Ans: egume plants are known for their ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. In the roots of legumes, special bacteria are present which absorbs nitrogen from the atmosphere and makes the soil fertile.


  1. Match the crop with the type of the soil in which they will grow best.

       i. lack soil- rice

       ii. ed soil- cotton

       iii. oam soil- maize

       iv. ed soil- turmeric

Ans: a.  Black soil- cotton

       b. Red soil- rice

       c. Loam soil- turmeric

       d. Red soil- maize