Indian Missiles-1

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Indian Missiles

Types of missile
Ballistic Missile:
Ballistic missiles are basically projectiles. They are governed by the laws of gravity. Ballistic missiles are guided for brief duration just in starting phase of trajectory and the rest of the path is like a free falling projectile under gravity. These missiles are of three types mainly ;
SRBM : short range ballistic missiles
IRBM : intermediate range ballistic missiles and
ICBM (the longest range): Inter-continental ballistic missiles
All the missiles of Prithvi and Agni series Ballistic type.
 
Cruise Missile:
These missiles are guided throughout their trajectory and doesn't falls freely like a normal gravity bound projectile. These missiles don't follow the laws of gravity and their path is controlled totally throughout their journey period. These missiles are self navigating and fly at extremely low altitudes to avoid being caught by radars. Level of accuracy in these missiles is extremely high.  
Cruise missiles can be categorized by size, speed (subsonic or supersonic), range and whether launched from land, air, surface ship or submarine.
       1.  Subsonic
       2.  Supersonic
       3.  Hypersonic
Subsonic cruise missile flies at a speed lesser than that of sound. Supersonic cruise missile have speed more than subsonic and Hypersonic travels at a speed that is more than the previous ones.
BRAHMOS is the only known versatile supersonic cruise missile system which is in service. Many countries are working to develop hypersonic cruise missiles.

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On the basis of Launch Mode:
(i)
Surface ­to­ Surface Missile: A surface­ to­ surface missile is a guided projectile launched from a hand­held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation. It is often powered by a rocket motor or sometimes fired by an explosive charge since the launch platform is stationary.
(ii)
Surface ­to­ Air Missile: A surface­ to­ air missile is designed for launch from the ground to destroy aerial targets like aircrafts, helicopters and even ballistic missiles. These missiles are generally called air defense systems as they defend any aerial attacks by the enemy.
(iii)
Surface (Coast) ­to­ Sea Missile: A surface (coast) to ­sea missile is designed to be launched from land to ship in the sea as targets.
(iv)
Air ­to ­Air Missile: An air ­to ­air missile is launched from an aircraft to destroy the enemy aircraft.
(v)
Air­ to­ Surface Missile: An air­to­surface missile is designed for launch from military aircraft and strikes ground targets on land, at sea or both. The missiles are basically guided via laser guidance, infrared guidance and optical guidance or via GPS signals. The type of guidance depends on the type of target.
(vi)
Sea­to­Sea Missile: A sea­to­sea missile is designed for launch from one ship to another ship.
(vii)
Sea­to­Surface (Coast) Missile: A sea­to­surface missile is designed for launch from ship to land based targets.
(viii)
Anti­Tank Missile: An anti­tank missile is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily­armored tanks and other armored fighting vehicles. Anti­tank missiles could be launched from aircraft, helicopters, tanks and also from shoulder mounted launcher.

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Intercontinental Ballistic Missile On the basis of Propulsion:
(i)
Solid Propulsion: Solid fuel is used in solid propulsion. Generally, the fuel is aluminium powder. It can reach very high speed very quickly.
(ii)
Liquid Propulsion: The liquid propulsion technology uses liquid as fuel. The fuels are hydrocarbons.
(iii)
Hybrid Propulsion: There are two stages in hybrid propulsion ­ solid propulsion and liquid propulsion.
(iv)
Ramjet: A ramjet engine does not have any turbines unlike turbojet engines. It achieves compression of intake air just by the forward speed of the air vehicle.
(v)
Scramjet: Scramjet is an acronym for Supersonic Combustion Ramjet. The difference between scramjet and ramjet is that the combustion takes place at supersonic air velocities through the engine. Hydrogen is normally the fuel used.
(vi)
Cryogenic: Cryogenic propellants are liquefied gases stored at very low temperatures, most frequently liquid hydrogen as the fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer.

 

On the basis of Warhead:
(i)
Conventional Warhead: A conventional warhead contains high energy explosives. It is filled with a chemical explosive and relies on the detonation of the explosive and the resulting metal casing fragmentation as kill mechanisms.
(ii)
Strategic Warhead: In a strategic warhead, radio active materials are present and when triggered they exhibit huge radio activity that can wipe out even cities. They are generally designed for mass annihilation.

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On the basis of Guidance Systems :
(i)
Wire Guidance: This system is broadly similar to radio command, but is less susceptible to electronic counter measures. The command signals are passed along a wire (or wires) dispensed from the missile after launch.
(ii)
Command Guidance: Command guidance involves tracking the projectile from the launch site or platform and transmitting commands by radio, radar, or laser impulses or along thin wires or optical fibres. Tracking might be accomplished by radar or optical instruments from the launch site or by radar or television imagery relayed from the missile.
(iii)
Terrain Comparison Guidance: Terrain Comparison (TERCOM) is used invariably by cruise missiles. The system uses sensitive altimeters (an instrument for determining altitude attained, especially a barometric or radar device fitted in an aircraft.) to measure the profile of the ground directly below and checks the result against stored information.
(iv)
Terrestrial Guidance: This system constantly measures star angles and compares them with the pre­programmed angles expected on the missile’s intended trajectory. The guidance system directs the control system whenever an alteration to trajectory is required.
(v)
Inertial Guidance: An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. These systems are used in the surface ­to­ surface missiles and in cruise missiles.
(vi)
Beam Rider Guidance: The beam rider concept relies on an external ground or ship­based radar station that transmits a beam of radar energy towards the target. The surface radar tracks the target and also transmits a guidance beam that adjusts its angle as the target moves across the sky.
(vii)
Laser Guidance: In laser guidance, a laser beam is focused on the target and the laser beam reflects off the target and gets scattered. The missile has a laser seeker that can detect even miniscule amount of radiation. The seeker provides the direction of the laser scatters to the guidance system. The missile is launched towards the target, the seeker looks out for the laser reflections and the guidance system steers the missile towards the source of laser reflections that is ultimately the target.
(viii)
RF and GPS Reference: RF (Radio Frequency) and GPS (Global Positioning System) are examples of technologies that are used in missile guidance systems. A missile uses GPS signal to determine the location of the target. Over the course of its flight, the weapon uses this information to send commands to control surfaces and adjusts its trajectory. In a RF reference, the missile uses RF waves to locate the target.
 

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