Types of pollution


Air Pollution:


•      Smoke produced from industries, factories, vehicles, burning of garbage, etc.

Other examples are: A cloud of smoke from the exhaust of a bus, car, or a scooter; smoke billowing from a factory chimney, speeding cars cause dust to rise from the roads.

•      Natural phenomena such as the eruption of a volcano cause air pollution.

•      Someone smoking a cigarette can also cause air pollution.


Disease Caused:

•      It may cause a number of deadly diseases such as Lung cancer and Asthma.


Land Pollution:


•      Dumping of solid wastes such as plastic bags, glass bottles, and metal containers, etc.

Other examples are: Dumping of industrial waste, mineral exploitation, and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices.

•      Land pollution also includes litter and waste along with the soil.

•      The soil gets polluted by the chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural purposes along with waste matter being littered in urban areas such as roads, parks, and streets.

•      Because of this littering in urban areas, the wastes are consumed by some domestic animals and further it enters the food chain.


Disease Caused:

•      It may cause skin rashes.

Note: Deforestation causes strong winds and water to carry soil particles with them leading to soil erosion (wearing away of topsoil).

Water Pollution:



•      Industries are a major source of water pollution.

•      Toxic household and industrial wastes released into water bodies also pollute the water.

•      Washing clothes, animals bathing in rivers, especially in rural areas cause water pollution.

•      Other sources include oil spills, atmospheric deposition, marine dumping, etc.

•      Among these, domestic waste and industrial waste are the most important sources contributing to water pollution.

•      Even, oil spillage in sea water causes water pollution and affects marine life.

e.g. In August 2008, there was an oil leakage from the ship named MSC Chitra which took place in Mumbai.


Disease Caused:

•      It may lead to a number of diseases like Cholera, Diarrhoea, Typhoid.


Noise Pollution:


•      Vehicles, loudspeakers, etc. are the sources of noise pollution.

•      Sounds are considered as noise pollution if they adversely affect wildlife, human activity.


Disease Caused:

•      Exposure to loud noise over a long period of time may cause deafness and induces high blood pressure, sleeplessness, stress, etc.