Verb Notes-2 [Level-7]
More about gerunds:
Take determiners: The writing on the wall needs to be cleaned.
Be modified by an adjective: The melodious singing kept everyone quiet.
Have their own objects: Smoking cigarettes is injurious to health.
Gerund as object: Ali has finished eating.
Gerund as complement: The new book is disappointing.
Gerund as subject: In sentence (a) The writing - subject
Gerund as object: In sentence (d) eating - object of ''has finished"
Gerund as complement: In sentence (e) disappointing - complement of the verb of incomplete predication "is"
More about participles:
Participles are verbal adjectives.
The starting point is quite far off. (starting - present participle -modifying the noun point)
The fallen tree disturbed the traffic. (fallen - past participle -modifying the noun tree)